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氮肥减施对夏玉米产量及水氮利用效率的影响

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DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1672-3872.2023.17.012

作者:宋世浩1,2李滨键1,2王景旭1,2(1. 河北工程大学水利水电学院,河北 邯郸 056002;2. 河北省智慧水利重点实验室,河北 邯郸 056002)

 

摘 要:【目的】合理减氮的配方施肥技术可以进一步促进化肥减量增效,探究冀南地区既能增产又能提高水氮利用效率的最佳氮肥施用量具有重要意义。【方法】研究小组采用大田试验,设计四个不同施氮量处理,分别标记为N0配方无氮(N0PK)、N1配方低氮(N1PK)、N2配方高氮(N2PK)、N3习惯施肥(N3PK)。研究其对夏玉米产量(百粒重、单穗籽粒质量、穗粒数)和水氮利用效率(生育期总耗水量、水分利用效率、氮肥利用率、氮肥农学效率)的影响。【结果】1)施加氮肥能显著提升冀南地区夏玉米的产量,但对夏玉米百粒重的影响不显著,对夏玉米穗粒数的影响显著。与N0处理相比,施氮处理夏玉米增产29.78%~38.19%。2)施氮量对夏玉米生育期耗水量没有显著影响,对水分利用效率有显著影响。与N0处理相比,施氮处理水分利用效率提升29.95%~38.73%。3)氮肥利用率和氮肥农学效率随施氮量的增加都呈先增后减的趋势,N2﹥N1﹥N3。N2处理的氮肥利用率和氮肥农学效率最高,分别为41.30%、12.89%;N3处理最低,分别为33.50%、10.59%。【结论】在保证高产和较高水氮利用效率的前提下,在N3习惯施肥的基础上减施氮肥,即N2处理(氮肥施用量为225 kg/hm2 )为冀南地区夏玉米的最佳施氮量。

关键词:夏玉米;氮肥减施;产量;水氮利用效率

 
The Effect of Reducing Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on the Yield and Water and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency of Summer Maize
Author: Song Shihao1,2, Li Binjian1,2, Wang Jingxu1,2

(1.School of Water Conservancy and Hydropower, Hebei University of Engineering, Hebei Handan 056002; 2.Hebei Key Laboratory of Intelligent Water Conservancy, Hebei Handan 056002)

 

Abstract: [Objective] Reasonable nitrogen reduction formula fertilization technology can further promote fertilizer reduction and efficiency and explore the optimal nitrogen fertilizer application rate in southern Hebei that can increase yield and improve water and nitrogen utilization efficiency is of great significance. [Method] The research team used field experiments to design four different nitrogen application treatments, which were labeled as N0 formula nitrogen free (N0PK), N1 formula low nitrogen (N1PK), N2 formula high nitrogen (N2PK), and N3 conventional fertilization (N3PK). Study its impact on summer maize yield (100 grain weight, grain weight per ear, number of grains per ear) and water and nitrogen utilization efficiency (total water consumption during the growth period, water utilization efficiency, nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency, and nitrogen fertilizer agronomic efficiency). [Result] 1) Applying nitrogen fertilizer can significantly increase the yield of summer maize in southern Hebei, but the effect on the 100 grain weight of summer maize is not significant, and the effect on the number of grains per ear of summer maize is significant. Compared with the N0 treatment, the nitrogen application treatment increased yield of summer maize by 29.78% to 38.19%. 2) The nitrogen application rate did not significantly affect the water consumption during the growth period of summer maize, but had a significant impact on water use efficiency. Compared with the N0 treatment, the nitrogen application treatment increased water use efficiency by 29.95% to 38.73%. 3) The nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency and nitrogen fertilizer agronomic efficiency show a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increase of nitrogen application rate, with N2>N1>N3. The nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency and nitrogen fertilizer agronomic efficiency of N2 treatment were the highest, at 41.30% and 12.89%, respectively; the N3 treatment had the lowest values of 33.50% and 10.59%, respectively. [Conclusion] On the premise of ensuring high yield and high water and nitrogen utilization efficiency, reducing nitrogen fertilizer application on the basis of N3 habitual fertilization, that is, N2 treatment (nitrogen fertilizer application rate of 225 kg/hm2 ) is the optimal nitrogen application rate for summer maize in the southern Hebei region.

Keywords: summer maize; nitrogen fertilizer reduction; yield; water and nitrogen use efficiency

 

引文信息 [1]宋世浩,李滨键,王景旭.氮肥减施对夏玉米产量及水氮利用效率的影响[J].南方农机,2023,54(17):45-48.

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