作者：谢俊宇，茅颖惠，曹莹（南京工程学院环境工程学院，江苏 南京 211167）
摘 要：【目的】人们对水产品的依赖程度越来越高，但由于管理不当引起的水质污染问题日益严重，抗生素滥用导致的病害泛滥，严重制约了水产养殖行业的发展空间，亟需突破这一困境。【方法】鉴于此，课题组在剖析水质问题引起原因的基础上，综述了目前国内外常见的几种行之有效的微生物应用方法和研究进展，并分别阐述了益生菌饲料添加剂技术、微藻培养技术、微藻固定化技术，生物絮凝体（BFT）技术在目前研究中存在的问题以及未来的应用前景。【结果】1）益生菌作为混合 或单一培养物的生物活性成分能够发挥作用，增加了抗病性，可以大大减少病毒对鱼类的伤害。2）微藻的大面积培养仍处于试验模型阶段，且不同的微藻针对不同的养殖对象存在特异性效果，相关产业仍不完善，虽有效却难以大面积推广。3）固定化菌-藻共生体在污水净化处理中展现了强大的优越性，但成本较高。4）BFT技术既避免了水体中腐絮以及饲料的残留又维 持了水体水质，但目前只存在理论研究，实际应用中仍有诸多问题。【结论】微藻培养以及BFT相较于益生菌饲料添加剂和微藻固定化技术仍不成熟，存在着理论、应用、推广、经济效益等多方面的问题，未来如果完善这两种技术的研究，其能够在我 国“双碳”背景下作出巨大贡献。
Research Progress on Application of Microorganism in Aquaculture
Xie Junyu, Mao Yinghui, Cao Ying (College of Environmental Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Jiangsu Nanjing 211167)
Abstract: [Objective] People’s dependence on aquatic products is increasing, but the water pollution problem caused by improper management is becoming increasingly serious, and the disease caused by antibiotic abuse is rampant, which seriously restricts the development space of the aquaculture industry. It is urgent to solve this dilemma. [Method] In view of this, based on analyzing the causes of water quality issues, the research team reviewed several commonly used and effective microbial application methods and research progress at home and abroad, and respectively elaborated on the probiotic feed additive technology, microalgae culture technology, microalgae fixation technology, the problems in current research and the future application prospects of biological flocculant (BFT) technology. [Result] 1) Probiotics as bioactive ingredients in mixed or single cultures can play a role, increase disease resistance, and greatly reduce the harm of viruses to fish. 2) The large-scale cultivation of microalgae is still in the experimental model stage, and different microalgae have specific effects on different breeding objects. The related industry is still incomplete, and although effective, it is difficult to promote on a large scale. 3) Immobilized bacterial algal symbionts have shown strong advantages in wastewater purification treatment, but the cost is relatively high. 4) BFT technology not only avoids decaying flocs and residual feed in water bodies, but also maintains water quality. However, there are currently only theoretical studies and many problems in practical applications. [Conclusion] Compared to probiotic feed additives and microalgae immobilization technology, microalgae cultivation and BFT are still immature, and there are various problems in theory, application, promotion, and economic benefits. If these two technologies are improved in the future, they can make significant contributions in the context of China’s “dual carbon”.
Keywords: aquaculture; probiotics; microalgae; biological flocculation technology