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一种基于菠萝机械化田间管理技术的多功能田间管理机设计与试验

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DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1672-3872.2024.02.001

基金项目:2022年乡村振兴战略专项省级组织实施项目资金(粤财农〔2022〕152号);2022年乡村振兴战略专项省级组织实施项目资金(粤财农〔2022〕92号)

作  者:王斌斌1 ,刘 威1 ,邓文平2 ,陈中武1 (1. 广东省现代农业装备研究所,广东 广州 510630;2. 广东弘科农业机械研究开发有限公司,广东 广州 510630)

 

摘 要:【目的】针对当前菠萝田间管理机械难以进入田间自由穿梭作业的问题,课题组设计了一种多功能菠萝田间管理机,以提升田间管理作业效率。【方法】课题组通过剖析菠萝机械化田间管理技术,从菠萝植株特点、种植农艺参数及田间管理需求等方面,分析了菠萝田间管理机应具备的关键功能、田间管理作业应注意事项以及农艺的适应性问题,在此基础上应用模块化设计理念,将田间管理机按功能结构进行模块划分,分别设计了菠萝田间管理机可变轨距高地隙窄型履带式通用底盘和 喷杆喷雾组件、固态肥施肥组件、扩展平台运输组件三种作业功能部件,各功能部件与通用底盘集成组合成菠萝多功能田间管理机,并对样机进行田间试验。【结果】1)田间喷药效果:喷杆喷雾作业幅宽900 cm,作业平均速度2.0 km/h,药液喷洒均 匀,作业效率可达到25亩/h。2)田间施固态复合肥效果:固态肥施肥组件料箱可装载400 L固态肥,施肥量由操控系统电动控制,可随时调节,方便易用,施肥作业效率可达5亩/h。3)田间运输作业效果:一次可运载600 kg菠萝出田,使用2台运输 机配套5人操作,较传统人工采收作业可以减少一半人工,同时采收效率提高一倍。此外,扩展平台运输组件在施肥时可与 固态肥施肥组件同时安装在通用行走底盘上,放置肥料,增加整机的载肥量,减少机器出田补肥的作业次数,提高了施肥作业效率,也可单独安装作为运输机。【结论】实现了菠萝田间管理机一机多用功能,可完成菠萝田间液态药肥喷洒、固态肥施 播以及果实、物资田间运输等大部分田间管理作业,显著提升了田间管理作业效率,为菠萝田间管理机械化提供了一种创新性装备解决方案。

关键词:菠萝;田间管理;多功能管理机;菠萝机械化

 

A Multifunctional Field Management Machine Based on Pineapple Mechanized Field Management Technology Design and Testing

Wang Binbin1, Liu Wei1, Deng Wenping2, Chen Zhongwu1

(1.Guangdong Institute of Modern Agricultural Equipment, Guangdong Guangzhou 510630; 2.Guangdong Hongke Agricultural Machinery Research and Development Co., Ltd., Guangdong Guangzhou 510630)

 

Abstract: [Objective] In response to the current problem of difficulty for pineapple field management machinery to enter and shuttle freely in the field, the research team has designed a multifunctional pineapple field management machine to improve the efficiency of field management operations. [Method] The research group analyzed the mechanized field management technology of pineapple, and analyzed the key functions, precautions for field management operations, and adaptability issues of pineapple field management machines from the aspects of pineapple plant characteristics, planting agronomic parameters, and field management requirements. Based on this, the modular design concept was applied to divide the field management machine into modules according to its functional structure, the pineapple field management machine variable gauge high clearance narrow crawler general chassis and three operational functional components, namely, spray bar spraying component, solid fertilizer fertilization component and expansion platform transportation component, were designed respectively. Each functional component and the general chassis were integrated into a pineapple multi-function field management machine, and the prototype was tested in the field. [Result] 1) Field spraying effect: The spray bar spray operation width is 900 cm, the average operation speed is 2.0 km/h, the liquid medicine is sprayed evenly, and the operation efficiency can reach 25 mu/h. 2) Effect of applying solid compound fertilizer in the field: The solid fertilizer fertilization component box can load 400 L of solid fertilizer, and the fertilization amount is electrically controlled by the control system, which can be adjusted at any time, making it convenient and easy to use. The fertilization efficiency can reach 5 mu/h. 3) Field transportation operation effect: It can transport 600 kg of pineapple out of the field at once, using 2 transport machines with 5 people to operate. Compared with traditional manual harvesting operations, it can reduce labor by half and improve harvesting efficiency by one time. In addition, the transportation component of the extended platform can be installed on the universal walking chassis simultaneously with the solid-state fertilizer application component during fertilization, placing fertilizer to increase the fertilizer load of the entire machine, reduce the number of times the machine goes out to supplement fertilizer, improve the efficiency of fertilization operations, and can also be installed separately as a transportation machine. [Conclusion] The pineapple field management machine has achieved a multifunctional function, which can complete most of the field management operations such as liquid fertilizer spraying, solid fertilizer sowing, and fruit and material transportation, significantly improving the efficiency of field management operations and providing an innovative equipment solution for the mechanization of pineapple field management.

Keywords: pineapple; field management; multi functional management machine; pineapple mechanization

 

引文信息:[1]王斌斌,刘威,邓文平,等.一种基于菠萝机械化田间管理技术的多功能田间管理机设计与试验[J].南方农机,2024,55(2):1-5+25.

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